Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis, but Not from Porphyromonas endodontalis, Induces Macrophage M1 Profile
Apical Lesions of Endodontic Origin (ALEO) are initiated by polymicrobial endodontic canal infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce a pro-inflammatory macrophage response through their recognition by TLR2 and TLR4. However, polarization responses induced by Pg and/or Pe LPS in macrophages are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize the polarization profiles of macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells following Pg and/or Pe LPS stimulation from reference strain and clinical isolates. A modified LPS purification protocol was implemented and the electrophoretic LPS profiles were characterized. THP-1 human monocytes differentiated to macrophages were stimulated with Pg and Pe LPS. Polarization profiles were characterized through cell surface markers and secreted cytokines levels after 24 h of stimulation. TLR2 and TLR4 cell surfaces and transcriptional levels were determined after 24 or 2 h of LPS stimulation, respectively. LPS from Pg induced a predominant M1 profile in macrophages evidenced by changes in the expression of the surface marker CD64 and pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Pe LPS was unable to induce a significant response. TLR2 and TLR4 expressions were neither modified by Pg or Pe LPS. Pg LPS, but not Pe LPS, induced a macrophage M1 Profile.