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    Interrelationship among body mass index, body composition, and biochemical profiles of overweight adolescents in south of Brazil: A cross-sectional study.
    (2023-03-23) de Paula Silva Lalucci, Marielle Priscila; de Souza Marques, Déborah Cristina; Caroline Santos, Isabella; Zirondi Caitano, Jéssica; Ferrari Silva, Bruno; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Magnani Branco, Braulio Henrique
    Introduction: Obesity in adolescence is associated with severe health complications. Objective: To analyze possible associations among body mass index (BMI), body composition, and biochemical profiles of overweight or obese adolescents. Methods: The study was carried out between 2017 and 2020 and included 132 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. The following variables were analyzed: BMI, fat-free mass (FFM), body fat mass (BFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body fat percentage (%BF), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), lean mass index (LMI), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-to-lean mass ratio (FMR), as well as total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (TGO). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® version 20.0, considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: Higher values were identified for height, LBM, FFM, and SMM in the male group. On the other hand, higher values were identified for the %BF and FMI in the female group. The female, male, and general groups showed significant correlations between BMI and FMR (r = 0.69, 0.74, and 0.69, respectively), BMI and FFM (r = 0.44, 0.67, and 0.49, respectively), BMI and SMM (r = 0.44, 0.68, and 0.50, respectively), and BMI and %BF (r = 0.40, 0.54, and 0.47, respectively). In the general group, BMI and HDL levels were correlated (r = −0.18; p=0.04). The BFM and WHR showed a predictive effect for TC; WHR and %BF showed a predictive effect for LDL concentrations, and %BF had a predictive effect for TGO (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was possible to verify that BMI, body composition, and biochemical measures show an interrelationship between them, such as with a worsening of anthropometric and body composition indicators associated with worst biochemical parameters, e.g., lower HDL-c and higher TC, LDL-c, and TGO. Thus, public policies are indispensable for combating obesity and related comorbidities in the early phases of life.
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    Anthropometric Profile and Physical Activity Level as Predictors of Postural Balance in Overweight and Obese Children
    (2023-01-14) Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo; Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristián; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Monsalves-Álvarez, Matías; Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás
    Overweightness and obesity can negatively influence many activities, including postural balance and locomotion, increasing predisposition to injury and risk of falls due to limitations on the biomechanics of daily living. The present study aimed to determine the influence of the anthropometric profile and physical activity level (PAL) on the postural balance of overweight and obese children. The sample included 387 schoolchildren (216 boys and 171 girls). The variables of the anthropometric profile studied were body mass, biped height, BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), summation of folds, body composition, and somatotype. PAL was measured using the PAQ-C questionnaire. Static and dynamic postural balance were measured through an open-eye (OE) and closed-eye (CE) posturographic test and the SEBTm, respectively. For static balance, the significant models were for mediolateral velocity (R2 = 0.42 in OA; R2 = 0.24 in OC), anteroposterior velocity (R2 = 0.21 in OA; R2 = 0.27 in OC), and mean velocity (R2 = 0.27 in OA; R2 = 0.46 in OC), where the predictors of low performance were younger age, male sex, overweight/obese nutritional status, greater thickness of skin folds, less tendency to mesomorphy, and greater fat mass. On the other hand, for dynamic postural balance, the significant models were observed in the previous direction (R2 = 0.39), posteromedial (R2 = 0.57), and posterolateral (R2 = 0.56), where the variables that predict a low performance were low PAL, overweight/obese nutritional status, and high WHR. Overweight and obese children presented a deficit in static and dynamic postural balance, enhanced by variables such as gender, age, PAL, and anthropometric characteristics related to adiposity.
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    Warm-up stretching exercises and physical performance of youth soccer players
    (2023-02-15) Hernandez-Martinez, Jordan; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vera-Assaoka, Tiago; Castillo-Cerda, María; Carter-Thuillier, Bastian; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; López-Fuenzalida, Antonio; Nobari, Hadi; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo
    This study aims to compare the effects of standard warm-up versus warm-up using stretching exercises on the physical performance of male youth soccer players. Eighty-five male soccer players (age: 10.3 ± 4.3 years; body mass index: 19.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) were assessed for countermovement jump height (CMJ, cm), 10 m, 20 m and 30 m running sprint speed (s) and ball kicking speed (km/h) for the dominant and non-dominant leg under five (randomized) warm-up conditions. Using 72 h of recovery between conditions, the participants completed a control condition (CC) and four experimental conditions, including static stretching (SSC), dynamic stretching (DSC), ballistic stretching (BSC), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNFC) exercises. All warm-up conditions had a duration of 10 minutes. The main results indicate that no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between warm-up conditions compared to CC in CMJ (CC = 28.1 ± 4.9; SSC = 28.4 ± 4.9; DSC = 30.9 ± 4.8; BSC = 30.9 ± 5.2; PNFC = 28.4 ± 5.0), 10 m sprint (CC = 2.42 ± 0.4; SSC = 2.50 ± 0.4; DSC = 2.30 ± 0.3; BSC = 2.27 ± 0.3; PNFC = 2.53 ± 0.4), 20 m sprint (CC = 5.42 ± 0.9; SSC = 5.59 ± 0.9; DSC = 5.37 ± 0.9; BSC = 5.40 ± 0.9; PNFC = 5.44 ± 0.9), 30 m sprint (CC = 8.05 ± 1.3; SSC = 8.27 ± 1.3; DSC = 8.01 ± 1.3; BSC = 8.00 ± 1.3; PNFC = 8.12 ± 1.3), ball kicking speed for dominant (CC = 56.2 ± 4.9; SSC = 55.3 ± 5.2; DSC = 56.9 ± 5.8; BSC = 57.3 ± 5.8; PNFC = 55.7 ± 5.2) and non-dominant leg (CC = 52.8 ± 3.4; SSC = 51.8 ± 4.6; DSC = 53.5 ± 5.4; BSC = 53.6 ± 4.9; PNFC = 52.5 ± 4.0). In conclusion, compared to standard warm-up, stretching-based warm-up exerts no effect on male youth soccer players jump height, sprint speed and ball kicking speed.
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    Influence of Body Composition on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Markers in Physically Inactive Individuals with Insulin Resistance: An Observational Study
    (2023-02-09) Azócar-Gallardo, Jairo; Ojeda-Aravena, Alex; Báez-San Martín, Eduardo; Campos-Uribe, Victor; González-Rojas, Luis; Castillo Cerda, María A.; García-García, José Manuel
    The aim of this study was to determine body composition influence on cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic markers in physically inactive individuals with insulin resistance (IR). Nineteen overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] 25.0–29.9 kg·m−2; ≥ 30.0 kg·m−2, respectively) patients diagnosed with IR (5 men and 14 women; age: 32.74 ± 10.07 years; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.60 kg·m−2). The body composition included BMI, fat mass, and fat-free mass. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Metabolic markers included maximal fat oxidation, fasting glucose, and insulin. IR was determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). The results of the partial correlations (i.e., body mass, age, and sex) reported that fat-free mass, fat mass, and BMI were significantly correlated with VO2max. Additionally, the multiple linear regression model indicated that fat-free mass and BMI explained the variance of VO2max by 89%. However, no substantial correlations were reported between fat mass or fat-free mass with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, or insulin. This study concluded that a higher percentage of fat-free mass and lower BMI is positively related to better cardiorespiratory fitness despite the IR status of the participants analyzed.
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    The Mediating Role of the Muscle Quality Index in the Relation of Screen Time and Abdominal Obesity with Health-Related Quality of Life in Chilean Schoolchildren
    (2023-01-31) Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Gómez-López, Manuel; Caamaño-Navarrete, Felipe; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Jerez-Mayorga, Daniel
    Screen time (ST) and abdominal obesity have a negative effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, there is little information regarding the mediating role of the muscle quality index (MQI) in these relationships. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between HRQoL, physical status (i.e., anthropometrics and fitness), lifestyle (i.e., ST and physical activity), and the MQI, and then to determine the potential mediating role of the MQI in the relation of ST and abdominal obesity with HRQoL in Chilean schoolchildren. The cross-sectional study included 750 schoolchildren (girls, n = 332 and boys, n = 418) aged between 10 and 14 years (11.73 ± 1.08 y). MQI, lifestyle, fitness parameters, waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) and HRQoL were measured. HRQoL presented a significant correlation with WtHR (r: −0.19), VO2max (r: 0.20), physical activity after school (r: 0.26), ST (r: −0.26) and MQI (r: 0.15). According to MQI, the high-MQI group reported higher HRQoL than the low-MQI group (low MQI: 36.10 ± 3.63 vs. high MQI: 37.43 ± 4.00, p < 0.001). In the mediation model, ST and abdominal obesity were negatively linked to HRQoL; the indirect effect confirmed that MQI is a partial mediator in the relation between ST and HRQoL (indirect effect = −0.04; SE = 0.02; 95% CI: −0.09, −0.01) and in the relation between abdominal obesity and HRQoL (indirect effect = −1.81; SE = 0.83; 95% CI: −3.41, −0.40). In conclusion, MQI is related to better HRQoL in schoolchildren, and the negative relation of ST and abdominal obesity with HRQoL is mediated by MQI.
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    A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Plyometric-Jump Training on the Physical Fitness of Combat Sport Athletes
    (2023-01-30) Ojeda-Aravena, Alex; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Báez-San Martín, Eduardo; Thapa, Rohit K.; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo
    We aimed to assess the athletic performance changes in combat sport athletes (CoSAs) after plyometric-jump training (PJT), compared to control conditions, through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Following PRISMA guidelines, three electronic databases were searched for includable articles, according to a PICOS approach. Using a random-effects model, Hedges’ g effects sizes (ES) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic, with values of <25%, 25–75%, and >75% representing low, moderate, and high levels of heterogeneity, respectively. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Twelve eligible articles were identified for systematic review, seven of high quality and five of moderate quality, according to the PEDro scale. The studies recruited taekwondo, silat, wrestling, judo, fencing, and karate athletes (292 total participants), including specific–active and active controls. Most participants had a mean age of <18 years and were males (n = 225). Compared to the control, PJT programmes, involving 4–12 weeks and 2–3 sessions per week, induced small to moderate improvements (ES = 0.47 to 1.04) in athletes’ maximal strength (e.g., 1RM squat), vertical jump height, change-of-direction speed, and specific performance (e.g., fencing movement velocity), although without meaningful effects on body mass, fat mass, and muscle mass (ES = 0.02 to −0.06). Most (7 of 8) outcomes attained low heterogeneity. The outcome-level GRADE analysis indicated a certainty of evidence from low to moderate. In conclusion, PJT, when compared to control conditions, may improve CoSA athletic performance.
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    Impacts of a Multi-Professional Family versus Isolated Intervention on Food Level Processing in Overweight Adolescents: A Randomized Trial
    (2023-02-13) Marques, Déborah C. S.; Ferreira, Willian C.; Santos, Isabella C.; Ryal, Joed J.; Marques, Marilene G. S.; Oliveira, Fabiano M.; Milani, Rute G.; Mota, Jorge; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Branco, Braulio H. M.
    The food consumption of adolescents has changed nowadays, with an increase in ultra-processed food that in general shows higher calories and lower nutrients. Because of this, the objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of a 12-week multi-professional family versus isolated intervention on the food level processing of overweight adolescents. A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in which adolescents (n = 43; mean aged 13.73 years) who were divided into FG—family group (n = 21; the adolescents performed the activities with their parents) and IG—isolated group (n = 22; the adolescents performed the activities alone). The parameters measured before and after 12 weeks of multi-professional intervention (physical exercise, nutrition and psychoeducation) were: body mass, height and body mass index-BMI. The level of food processing was analyzed using a three-day food recall (24hR), classified according to the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population (fresh, minimally, processed and ultra-processed foods). The main results show that there was only a significant reduction in the consumption of processed foods (FG: 7.93%; IG: 49.73%) and ultra-processed foods (FG: 35.06%; IG: 67.16%) in grams (FG: 22.29%; IG: 65.23%) and calories (p < 0.05; for all comparisons). The consumption of fresh foods in grams (FG:61.97%; IG: 147.13%) and calories (FG: 147.13%; IG: 118.03%) and minimally processed foods (FG: 27.45%; IG: 14.64%) in grams increased significantly (p < 0.05; for all comparisons). However, no significant differences were observed between all variables analyzed for the groups, nor any interaction (p > 0.05). In conclusion, both groups who participated in the activities showed positive changes with increased consumption of fresh foods and reduced consumption of processed foods, without difference between them.
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    Quantitative Diet, Body Composition and Sprint Performance in Female Professional Beach Handball Players
    (2022-12-28) Martínez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Sánchez-Sánchez, Javier; Martínez-Olcina, María; Vicente-Martínez, Manuel; Peñaranda-Moraga, Marcelo; Asencio-Mas, Nuria; Gonzálvez-Alvarado, Lucía; Matlosz, Piotr; Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Cortés-Roco, Guillermo; Sánchez-Sáez, Juan Antonio
    Women's elite sports have experienced an exponential increase in the last decade, as has beach handball (BH). The high demands of this sport mean that athletes need to be in superior physical condition, so nutrition and body composition are determining factors in their sporting performance. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze, compare and correlate the most relevant variables of food intake (quantitative), body composition (focus on the bone mass characteristics) and sprint performance in female professional BH players. Thirty-three women from the National Spanish Team participated in this study. Dietary assessment, anthropometric measurements and sprint tests were performed. In general, the players had a low carbohydrate intake and adequate protein intake, with no significant differences depending on the category and playing position. For senior players, positive correlations were found between protein intake and bone mass (r = 0.584, p = 0.022), polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and muscle mass (r = 0.387, p = 0.026) and finally between fat mass and animal protein intake (r = 0.569, p = 0.027). Body composition was similar in both categories; however, goalkeepers had the highest fat (22.6 ± 3.86%, 16.2 ± 4.84 kg) component (vs. wings: 17.4 ± 3.53%, p = 0.031/vs. specialists: 11.1 ± 1.91 kg, p = 0.034), and senior players had higher muscle mass (kilograms). It is worth noting the finding that players with a greater trochanter height had significantly lower sprint times (p = 0.014 and p = 0.048 for 5 and 10 m, respectively). Certain bone characteristics, such as iliospinale height, biacromial and bimalleolar diameters, mesosternal perimeter and biceps skinfold, differ depending on the position. In addition, the greater speed of the senior players may be due to the greater specialization, number of training sessions performed and specific bone characteristics, such as trochanter height. In this regard, the data provided in this study will assist with establishing criteria for the selection of talent for this sporting discipline.
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    Study the Effect of Relative Energy Deficiency on Physiological and Physical Variables in Professional Women Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    (2023-01-23) Miralles-Amorós, Laura; Asencio-Mas, Nuria; Martínez-Olcina, María; Vicente-Martínez, Manuel; García-De Frutos, José Manuel; Peñaranda-Moraga, Marcelo; Gonzálvez-Alvarado, Lucía; Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Cortés-Roco, Guillermo; Martínez-Rodríguez, Alejandro
    Energy deficits are often observed in athletes, especially in female athletes, due to the high expenditure of sport and strict diets. Low energy availability can cause serious health problems and affect sport performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different personalized dietary plans on physiological and physical factors related to energy deficit syndrome in female professional handball players. Twenty-one professional female handball players, aged 22 ± 4 years, 172.0 ± 5.4 cm and 68.4 ± 6.7 kg, divided into three groups (FD: free diet; MD: Mediterranean diet; and AD: high antioxidant diet), participated in this 12-week randomized controlled trial. Energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry, energy availability, 7 day dietary intake analysis, blood pressure, cholesterol, menstrual function, body composition by both anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance, and strength performance were assessed. All participants showed low energy availability (<30 kcal/lean mass per day); despite this, all had eumenorrhea. Significant improvements were found after the intervention in all components of body composition (p < 0.05). In the remaining variables, despite slight improvements, none were significant neither over time nor between the different groups. Low energy availability has been observed in all professional female handball players, which may lead to serious consequences. A longer period of intervention is required to assess the differences between diets and improvements in other parameters.
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    Efectos del foam roller sobre la capacidad de salto en deportistas: una revisión sistemática
    (2023-01-01) Alarcón-Rivera, Miguel; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Martínez Araya, Aldo; Astorga Verdugo, Sebastián; Lagos, Leonardo; Muñoz, Mario; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo
    Introducción: Se plantea que la utilización del foam roller (FR) en el ámbito deportivo puede ser un buen complemento para optimizar la mejora aguda del rango de movimiento y para provocar un efecto analgésico, no obstante, su utilización en el calentamiento con el fin de mejorar las variables neuromusculares como el salto vertical es controversial en deportistas. Es por esto que el objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue analizar los efectos del FR sobre la capacidad de salto en deportistas. Material y método: Se realizó una búsqueda comprensiva, exhaustiva y estructurada siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus, Sciencedirect y Web of Science. Los estudios que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión fueron valorados en cuanto a su calidad metodológica a través de la escala PEDro. Resultados: Un total de 262 registros se encontraron en la fase de identificación de estudios. En la fase de screening se eliminaron los duplicados y los estudios fueron filtrados seleccionando el título, resumen y palabras clave obteniendo como resultado 47 referencias. Un total de 18 estudios fueron analizados a texto completo, siendo 12 de ellos excluidos. Por lo tanto, el número total de estudios que cumplió con todos los criterios de selección fue de seis.
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    Relation between VT1, VT2, and VO2max with the Special Wrestling Fitness Test in Youth Wrestlers: A Short Report
    (2023-01-31) Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Franchini, Emerson; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Ojeda-Aravena, Alex; Pardo-Tamayo, Carolina; Zapata-Huenullán, Carolina; Cofre-Bolados, Cristián; Sanchez-Ramirez, Celso
    This study investigated the relationship between peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1) and 2 (VT2) with the Special Wrestling Fitness Test variables. Thirteen wrestlers (male: six; female: seven) of Olympic freestyle wrestling were assessed. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (p < 0.05) was used to establish the relationship between variables. A positive correlation was found between VT1 with throws in set B (r = 0.77; p = 0.002; 95%CI = 0.37–0.93), total throws (r = 0.73; p = 0.004; 95%CI = 0.30–0.91), heart rate recovery (r = 0.58; p = 0.036; 95%CI = 0.05–0.86), and test index (r = −0.60; p = 0.031; 95%CI = −0.86–0.07); between VT2 and throws in set B (r = 0.57; p = 0.043; 95%CI = 0.01–0.86); and between peak oxygen uptake with throws in set B (r = 0.77; p = 0.002; 95%CI = 0.39–0.93), throws in set C (r = 0.64; p = 0.02; 95%CI = 0.12–0.89), and total throws (r = 0.72; p = 0.006; 95%CI = 0.28–0.91). In conclusion, the peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory thresholds correlated with specific Special Wrestling Fitness Test variables.
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    Physical Activity, Seasonal Sensitivity and Psychological Well-Being of People of Different Age Groups Living in Extreme Environments
    (2023-01-17) Alvarado, Caren; Castillo-Aguilar, Matías; Villegas, Valeska; Estrada Goic, Claudia; Harris, Katherine; Barria, Patricio; Moraes, Michele M.; Mendes, Thiago T.; Arantes, Rosa M. E.; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian
    Physical activity can prevent many organic and mental pathologies. For people living in extreme southern high-latitude environments, weather conditions can affect these activities, altering their psychological well-being and favoring the prevalence of seasonal sensitivity (SS). This study aims to determine the relationships between the practice of physical activity, seasonal sensitivity and well-being in people living in high southern latitudes. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), applying a psychological well-being scale, and determining sports practice according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the 370 male (n = 209; 55%) and female (n = 173; 45%) participants. The main results indicated that 194 people (52 ± 7.7 years) reported physical activity. High-intensity physical activity practitioners recorded a significantly lower proportion of SS. In terms of psychological well-being, an adverse effect was found between the Seasonal Score Index (SSI) and five subcategories of the Ryff well-being scale. In conclusion, those who perform high-intensity physical activity have a lower SS, and those who have a higher SS have a lower psychological well-being.
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    Efectos de seis semanas de entrenamiento isoinercial sobre la capacidad de salto, velocidad de carrera y equilibrio postural dinámico
    (2023-01-31) Alarcón-Rivera, Miguel; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Guzman Muñoz, Eduardo
    Introducción: El método de entrenamiento de fuerza isoinercial presenta beneficios tanto en el campo del deporte y la rehabilitación. La evidencia disponible sugiere que este tipo de entrenamiento aumenta la fuerza y velocidad de las respuestas musculares. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos de seis semanas de entrenamiento isoinercial sobre la capacidad de salto, velocidad de carrera y equilibrio postural dinámico en adultos no entrenados. Método: El diseño de este estudio fue pre-experimental. La selección de los participantes fue realizada de manera no probabilística por conveniencia. La muestra fue compuesta por 8 adultos, 4 personas de sexo femenino y 4 de sexo masculino. Se realizaron evaluaciones de evaluación de la fuerza explosiva a través del countermovement jump (CMJ), la prueba de carrera de 20 metros y la prueba de equilibrio postural dinámico Star Excursion Balance Test modificada (SEBTm). Todas las evaluaciones fueron realizadas pre y post un entrenamiento isoinercial. Resultados: Posterior al programa de entrenamiento isoinercial, la capacidad de salto aumentó un 17% en hombres y un 15% en mujeres. El tiempo de carrera disminuyó un 22% tanto en hombres como mujeres. El equilibrio postural dinámico también mostró un mejor rendimiento en las tres direcciones evaluadas en hombres y mujeres sometidos al entrenamiento isoinercial. Conclusión: El entrenamiento de fuerza con el método isoinercial parece ser una herramienta eficaz para la mejora de la capacidad de salto CMJ, velocidad de carrera y equilibrio postural dinámico en adultos saludables no entrenados.
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    Effects of Strength Training on Physical Fitness of Olympic Combat Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review
    (2023-02-16) Cid-Calfucura, Izham; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Franchini, Emerson; Falco, Coral; Alvial-Moscoso, Jorge; Pardo-Tamayo, Carolina; Zapata-Huenullán, Carolina; Ojeda-Aravena, Alex; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo
    This review aimed to identify the effects of strength training programs on the physical fitness of Olympic combat sports (OCS) athletes. The systematic review included peer-reviewed articles that incorporated interventions that included pre- and post-intervention physical fitness assessment. The search was performed in the SCOPUS, PubMed, and Web of Science databases between April and September 2022. PRISMA and the TESTEX checklist were used to select and assess the methodological quality of the studies. Twenty studies with 504 participants (428 males and 76 females) were included. Significant improvements were found in athletes’ maximal dynamic and isometric strength, muscle power, flexibility, and balance. In addition, improvements in favor of the training groups in specific actions of judo, karate, fencing, and boxing were observed. In conclusion, interventions aimed at the development of muscle strength in OCS, specifically in judo, boxing, karate, wrestling, and fencing, proved to be beneficial at a physical fitness level, resulting in significant increases in favor of the training groups with OCS, which could be used by trainers and coaches to improve the physical performance of athletes.
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    Validity and Reliability of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Parameters in Older People in Response to Physical Exercise
    (2023-03-02) Castillo-Aguilar, Matías; Mabe Castro, Matías; Mabe Castro, Diego; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo; Lang, Morin; Niño Méndez, Oscar; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian
    Background: Currently, and to the best of our knowledge, there is no standardized protocol to measure the effect of low- to moderate-intensity physical exercise on autonomic modulation focused in older people. Aim: Validate a test–retest short-term exercise protocol for measuring the autonomic response through HRV in older people. Methods: A test–retest study design was used. The participants were selected through intentional non-probabilistic sampling. A total of 105 older people (male: 21.9%; female: 78.1%) were recruited from a local community. The assessment protocol evaluated HRV before and immediately after the 2-min step test. It was performed twice on the same day, considering a time of three chronological hours between the two measurements. Results: The posterior distribution of estimated responses in the Bayesian framework suggests moderate to strong evidence favoring a null effect between measurements. In addition, there was moderate to robust agreement between heart rate variability (HRV) indices and assessments, except for low frequency and very low frequency, which showed weak agreement. Conclusions: Our results provide moderate to strong evidence for using HRV to measure cardiac autonomic response to moderate exercise, suggesting that it is sufficiently reliable to show similar results to those shown in this test–retest protocol.
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    Effects of a Multi-Professional Intervention on Mental Health of Middle-Aged Overweight Survivors of COVID-19: A Clinical Trial
    (2023-02-25) Ryal, Joed Jacinto; Santos Perli, Victor Augusto; de Souza Marques, Déborah Cristina; Sordi, Ana Flávia; de Souza Marques, Marilene Ghiraldi; Camilo, Maria Luiza; Milani, Rute Grossi; Mota, Jorge; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Magnani Branco, Braulio Henrique
    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a multi-professional intervention model on the mental health of middle-aged, overweight survivors of COVID-19. A clinical trial study with parallel groups and repeated measures was conducted. For eight weeks, multi-professional interventions were conducted (psychoeducation, nutritional intervention, and physical exercises). One hundred and thirty-five overweight or obese patients aged 46.46 ± 12.77 years were distributed into four experimental groups: mild, moderate, severe COVID, and control group. The instruments were used: mental health continuum-MHC, revised impact scale–IES-r, generalized anxiety disorder-GAD-7, and Patient health questionnaire PHQ-9, before and after eight weeks. The main results indicated only a time effect, with a significant increase in global MHC scores, emotional well-being, social well-being, and psychological well-being, as well as detected a significant reduction in global IES-R scores, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal, in addition to a reduction in GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it was possible to identify those psychoeducational interventions that effectively reduced anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms in post-COVID-19 patients, regardless of symptomatology, in addition to the control group. However, moderate and severe post-COVID-19 patients need to be monitored continuously since the results of these groups did not follow the response pattern of the mild and control groups.
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    Study of Different Personalised Dietary Plans on Eating Behaviour, Body Image and Mood in Young Female Professional Handball Players: A Randomised Controlled Trial
    (2023-01-31) Miralles-Amorós, Laura; Vicente-Martínez, Manuel; Martínez-Olcina, María; Asencio-Mas, Nuria; Gonzálvez-Alvarado, Lucía; Peñaranda-Moraga, Marcelo; Leyva-Vela, Belén; Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Cortés-Roco, Guillermo; Martínez-Rodríguez, Alejandro
    Low energy availability may precede or be caused by cognitive disturbances in professional athletes. Related psychological problems include disordered eating patterns, body shape preoccupation, depression or anxiety. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different personalised dietary plans on psychological factors in young professional female handball players with low energy availability. This 12-week randomised clinical trial involved 21 female players aged 22 ± 4 years, 172.0 ± 5.4 cm and 68.4 ± 6.7 kg divided into three groups (FD: free diet; MD: Mediterranean diet; HAD: high antioxidant diet). Eating behaviour (Eating Attitude Test, EAT-26: diet, bulimia and oral control subscales), body image (Body Shape Questionnaire, BSQ) and mood state (Profile of Mode State, POMS: tension, vigour, anger, depression, fatigue) were assessed. All participants showed low energy availability (<30 kcal/lean mass per day). The different plans showed no significant differences between them but significant differences over time within groups for the variables: body image, Tension, Vigour and Depression (p < 0.05). Eating behaviour improved slightly but did not show statistically significant changes. Following an adequate nutritional planning for athletes seems to improve the mood and body perception of young female handball players. A longer intervention period is required to assess the differences between diets and improvement of other parameters.
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    Effects of Neuromuscular Training on Physical Performance in Older People: A Systematic Review
    (2023-03-24) Concha-Cisternas, Yeny; Castro-Piñero, José; Leiva-Ordóñez, Ana María; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo
    This systematic review aimed to assess the available evidence on the effects of neuromuscular training on physical performance in older adults. A literature search was conducted across four databases (Psychology and Behavioral (EBSCO), Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed). The PRISMA guidelines were followed. The PEDro scale and Cochrane risk of bias tool were used to assess the quality of and risk of bias in the studies, respectively. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (code: CRD42022319239). The outcomes were muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, postural balance and gait speed. From 610 records initially found, 10 were finally included in the systematic review, involving 354 older people with a mean age of 67.3 years. Nine of them reported significant changes in at least one variable related to physical performance in the intervention compared to the control groups. The neuromuscular training caused significant improvements in postural balance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength power of the upper and lower limbs and autonomy. The available evidence indicates that neuromuscular training has a positive effect on some variables of physical performance, especially in postural balance; however, the methodological quality and certainty of the evidence in the available literature are limited. Therefore, a greater number of high-quality studies are required to draw definitive conclusions.
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    Efectos de los juegos didácticos en la clase de Educación Física en el logro de aprendizaje trasversal sobre hábitos de higiene escolar en estudiantes de 6 y 7 años
    (2023-06-28) Yañez Sepulveda, Rodrigo Alejandro; Hurtado-Almonacid, Juan; Olivares-Arancibia, Jorge; Cortés-Roco, Guillermo; Gudenschwager Sauca, Karin; Añasco-Rodríguez, Patricio; Trigo-Alvarez, Jaime; Muñoz-Rojas, Carlos
    Introducción: La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto del uso de juegos didácticos en las clases de Educación Física en el logro de aprendizaje transversal significativo sobre hábitos de higiene en estudiantes de 6 y 7 años. Métodos: Estudio cuasiexperimental, diseño metodológico cuantitativo, la muestra de 42 alumnos de ambos sexos con los cuales se llevó a cabo un programa de intervención por 4 semanas consecutivas. Se buscó determinar cuán influyente puede ser el juego en el aprendizaje significativo del niño en las clases de Educación Física por medio de una encuesta aplicada pre y post intervención, la cual constaba de 32 preguntas en donde se tenía que valorizar según frecuencia de ejecución: Siempre, Casi siempre, Ocasionalmente, Casi nunca, Nunca. Resultados: Los resultados de las diferentes variables se presentan en los datos a continuación tomando en cuenta la comparación previa y posterior a la intervención. Se observaron diferencias significativas durante las 4 semanas de intervención en Higiene de manos (PRE: 18,6 ± 4,6 POST: 27,9 ± 2,4; P= 0,000; TE= -2,45) se encontraron efectos positivos de la intervención; Higiene de Bucodental (PRE: 18,2 ± 4,5 POST: 23,6 ± 3,1; P= 0,000; TE= -1,39) se encontraron efectos positivos de la intervención.; Higiene Corporal (PRE: 16,3 ± 4,2 POST: 25,1 ± 2,3; p= 0,000; TE= -2,59); Higiene de Social (PRE: 13,0 ± 4,8 POST: 20,2 ± 2,1; p= 0,000; TE= -1,94) se encontraron efectos positivos de la intervención; Higiene total (PRE: 66,0 ± 16,3 POST: 96,8 ± 5,7; p= 0.000; TE= -2,47) se encontraron efectos positivos de la intervención. Conclusión: el programa de intervención en las clases de educación física, a través del juego generó efectos significativos en el aprendizaje transversal sobre los hábitos de higiene, lo que nos motiva a utilizar y recomendar este método de enseñanza para ser utilizado en impartir nuevos hábitos, valores y principios. En las cuatro variables, hábitos de higiene de manos, bucodental, social, y corporal, se tuvo una mejora significativa en los 42 alumnos y alumnas de la institución educativa. Con esto podemos dar cuenta que es un contenido que podemos trabajar sin problema durante las clases de Educación Física por medio de juegos didácticos.
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    Project-Based Learning as a Strategy in Physical Education Teacher Training: Creating A Cultural Route Promoting Active Commuting
    (2023-07-15) Zavala-Crichton, Juan Pablo; Hinojosa-Torres, Claudio; Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo
    This study analyzes the narrated reflection of the students in relation to their learning, based on the perceptions that emerge from their experience in the development of the project. Participants were 53 fourth year Pedagogy in Physical Education students, with an average age of 24.3, who were divided into 13 groups. A qualitative study that used the narrated reflection of the students in relation to learning, based on a driving question. In order to help guide the students’ work, and to collect the perceptions they experienced during their participation, the following four components were integrated into the development of the project and included in the final product: a) historical and heritage sites, b) technology used to measure energy expenditure, c) type of active commuting, d) reflection on what was learned. The students designed 13 routes of active commuting through the city, which included different cultural, heritage and historical landmarks. The students analyzed the learning experience, highlighting the importance of knowing and caring for the heritage of the different cities around which they traveled. PBL can be a didactic alternative in initial Physical Education teacher training to achieve learning by linking subject content with the motivations and interests of the students.