Obesogenic Diet-Induced Neuroinflammation: A Pathological Link between Hedonic and Homeostatic Control of Food Intake

Obesity-induced neuroinflammation is a chronic aseptic central nervous system inflammation that presents systemic characteristics associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) and the presence of microglia and reactive astrogliosis as well as the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The obesity pandemic is associated with lifestyle changes, including an excessive intake of obesogenic foods and decreased physical activity. Brain areas such as the lateral hypothalamus (LH), lateral septum (LS), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been implicated in the homeostatic and hedonic control of feeding in experimental models of diet-induced obesity. In this context, a chronic lipid intake triggers neuroinflammation in several brain regions such as the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. This review aims to present the background defining the significant impact of neuroinflammation and how this, when induced by an obesogenic diet, can affect feeding control, triggering metabolic and neurological alterations.
Diet, Feeding control, Glia, Inflammasome, Neuroinflammation, Obesity