Manufacture of a bio-tissue based on nanocrystalline cellulose from chilean bamboo Chusquea quila and a polymer matrix using electrospinning

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Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects
Polymers of renewable origin have aroused great interest among researchers due to their sustainable, environmentally friendly nature. This work presents a biopolymer called bio-tissue, as it is created by electrospinning. This bio-tissue was formed with a polymer matrix of cellulose acetate (CA) reinforced with crystalline cellulose (NCC) derived from an autochthonous Chilean bamboo species of no commercial value which is considered a pest, Chusquea quila or quila. Bio-tissues were produced with three concentrations of NCC (1, 5 and 10% as a dry weight proportion of cellulose acetate) and their technological potential as an interior coating in small constructions was assessed. The morphology of the bio-tissues showed that the CA nanofibers containing NCC were of better quality and more uniform diameter than pure CA. The thermal profile showed that the highest concentration of NCC (10% as a dry weight proportion of cellulose acetate) induced earlier degradation; it was less thermally stable and decomposed at lower temperatures. The bio-tissue with 5% as a dry weight proportion of cellulose acetate showed the greatest resistance to traction with a break-point of 30 MPa and an elasticity module of 1.597 MPa. Finally, it was shown that the permeability to water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide was low, allowing regulated passage of these molecules. These results show the feasibility of using cellulose nanofibers as a reinforcement in polymer matrices; this could have various applications in fields ranging from the construction industry to food packaging.
Electrospinning, Bio-tissue, Nanocrystalline cellulose, Chusquea quila, Chilean bamboo