Manufacture of a bio-tissue based on nanocrystalline cellulose from chilean bamboo Chusquea quila and a polymer matrix using electrospinning
Polymers of renewable origin have aroused great interest among researchers due to their sustainable,environmentally friendly nature. This work presents a biopolymer called bio-tissue, as it is createdby electrospinning. This bio-tissue was formed with a polymer matrix of cellulose acetate (CA)reinforced with crystalline cellulose (NCC) derived from an autochthonous Chilean bamboo speciesof no commercial value which is considered a pest,Chusquea quilaor quila. Bio-tissues were producedwith three concentrations of NCC (1, 5 and 10% as a dry weight proportion of cellulose acetate) andtheirtechnologicalpotentialasaninteriorcoatinginsmallconstructionswasassessed.Themorphologyof the bio-tissues showed that the CA nanofibers containing NCC were of better quality and moreuniform diameter than pure CA. The thermal profile showed that the highest concentration of NCC(10% as a dry weight proportion of cellulose acetate) induced earlier degradation; it was less thermallystable and decomposed at lower temperatures. The bio-tissue with 5% as a dry weight proportion ofcellulose acetate showed the greatest resistance to traction with a break-point of 30 MPa and anelasticity module of 1.597 MPa. Finally, it was shown that the permeability to water vapour, oxygenand carbon dioxide was low, allowing regulated passage of these molecules. These results show the feasibility of using cellulose nanofibers as a reinforcement in polymer matrices; this could have various applications in fields ranging from the construction industry to food packaging.